This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. The event had been largely ignored by the government. The "4.3 Incident" refers to a particularly bloody incident in 1948 between Jeju residents and authorities. ... 80, who lived through a massacre in the island's northern Bukchon Village. Others have been recognized more formally, with grave markers and memorial stone monuments. By spring of 1949, however, four Korean army battalions arrived and joined the local constabulary, police forces and Youth Association partisans. Join the influential community of members who rely on NK News original news and in-depth reporting. In one of its first official acts, the South Korean National Assembly passed the National Traitors Act in 1948, which among other measures, outlawed the Workers Party of South Korea. Of course, Jeju Islandis still unquestionably beautiful, but when I heard that most of the famous tourist attraction sites were once the graveyards of many souls, I was shocked by the forgotten history, the Jeju April 3 Incident. Now a group of scholars and clergy from the island are endeavoring to raise awareness of the U.S. government and military's role in the incident. ((Osaka-born novelist Kim Suok Puom, whose family originated in Jeju Island, explored human and historical contexts of the uprising and massacre in his novel, Volcano Island.) In 1992, President Roh Tae Woo's government sealed up a cave on Mount Hallawhere the … Seeking a speedy resolution to the insurrection, the South Korean government sent 3,000 soldiers of the South Korean 11th Constabulary Regiment to reinforce local police, but on April 29, several hundred soldiers mutinied, handing over large small-arms caches to the rebels. We instead recommend using Chrome, Edge, Firefox or Safari. Jeju Province - Jeju Province, officially Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, is one of the nine provinces of South Korea. The rebellion included the mutiny of several hundred members of the South Korean 11th Constabulary Regiment and lasted until May 1949, although small isolated pockets of fighting continued during the Korean War into 1953.[1]. Jeju Island is known as the 'Hawaii of Korea.' It was not until 2006 that the late President Roh Moo-Hyun officially apologized for the massacre and designated Jeju “Island of World Peace”. Lee, Hideko Takayama. Many visitors remember seeing fields of yellow canola flowers and the bright blue of ocean water. What today is an island of restoration and tourism was the site of innocent civilian execution. But after civilian rule was reinstated later in the 1990s, the government made several cases of apologies for the suppression, and efforts are being made to re-assess the scope of the incident and compensate the survivors. The arrest of 2,500 party cadres on Jeju and the killing of at least three of them broke up the planned demonstrations. The region eventually coalesced into free and Communist blocs in the process of the Cold War, but beforehand the two ideologies were not so clearly separated and fierce ideological, sometimes physical, fighting took place in cities, villages, and countryside. [2] Many of the Jeju people were more inspired by their perception of a future promoted by Kim Il Sung in North Korea than by the capitalist version taking shape in South Korea, and in Japan. Halla and the nearby volcanic cones, heralding the start of an armed rebellion. The Seoul government also sent several hundred Northwest Youth Association members, a group of anti-communist North Korean refugees as part of a paramilitary force. The official reports say that 14,373 victims were killed but people say that about 30,000 who were s… In late fall of 1948, the rebels began openly siding with Kim Il Sung by flying North Korean flags.[3]. General Kim Ik Ruhl was suddenly recalled to Seoul over his conciliatory approach with the rebels and was surprised when his replacement mounted a fierce and sustained offensive against the rebels. The South Korean military and police launched a scorched earth operation to break down the communists on Cheju Island. Many residents of Jeju escaped to Japan, some establishing a Jeju town in Osaka. Thousands were detained on Jeju, then sorted into four groups, labeled A, B, C, and D, based on the security risks each was perceived to pose. On April 3, 1948, rebels attacked eleven police stations, mutilating those found inside, and burned polling centers for the upcoming election. in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. Truth-Finding Efforts and Recommendations. In the fighting up to 100 policemen and civilians were killed. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article Microsoft ceased supporting IE 10 and older in 2016. Jeju Island is the largest island in the southernmost part of South Korea. In 2008, bodies of victims of a massacre were discovered in a mass grave near Jeju International Airport. This essay seeks to go along side this movement by reviewing some historical facts. On August 30, 1950, according to a written order by a senior intelligence officer in the South Korean Navy, the Jeju police were instructed to "execute all those in groups C and D by firin… By October 1948, the rebel army consisted of approximately 4,000 combatants, and although most were poorly armed they scored several minor victories over the Army. Immediately after North Korea invaded the South across the 38th Parallel on June 25, 1950, the South Korean military ordered "preemptive apprehension" of suspected leftists nationwide. In the late 1940s, as tensions over a soon-to-be divided Korean Peninsula simmered, a protest on Jeju Island was ruthlessly suppressed, claiming as many as 30,000 lives. Suppression of the rebellion by the South Korean army was brutal, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths, destroying many villages on the island, and sparking rebellions on the Korean mainland. Lt. General Kim Ik Ruhl, commander of the South Korean force on the island, attempted to end the insurrection peacefully by negotiating with the rebels. In the late 1940s, as tensions over a soon-to-be divided Korean Peninsula simmered, a protest on Jeju Island was ruthlessly suppressed, claiming as many as 30,000 lives. Residents of Jeju had been some of the most ardent resisters of Japanese rule and supporters of an independent Korea. In March of 1950, North Korea sent thousands of armed insurgents to resuscitate the guerrilla fighting on Jeju, but by this time the South Korean army had become particularly adept at counterinsurgency and quashed the new uprising in only a few weeks. Internet Explorer is not compatible with this website. The combined forces quickly finished off most of the remaining rebel forces. [5] The Koreans committed these atrocities in front of the U.S. military. He met several times with rebel leader Kim Sam-dal but they could not reach any agreement. You will receive a link to create a new password via email. The guerrillas created base camps on Mt. “The April 3rd Uprising and Massacre” was a tragic incident that happened between 1 March 1947 and 21 September 1954 on Jeju Island. 3’s historical remains by Professor Tae-il Kim, there are at least 154 known massacre sites scattered across the island… Now a group of scholars and clergy from the island are endeavoring to raise awareness of the U.S. government and military's role in the incident. Hallasan and the government forces held the coastal towns. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. American and Soviet troops arrived to accept the Japanese surrender in southern and northern parts of the Korean Peninsula, respectively. In addition, Microsoft cyber-security chief Chris Jackson has been urging users to stop using the browser since February 2019. The Workers Party of South Korea and their appeal foun… To me, Jeju used to be a beautiful island where everybody wanted to visit for their either romantic or exciting vacation. In the post-WWII years, the three major nations of the Far East—China, Korea and Japan—all struggled with the rise of Communism; in China, the Maoists won and established a Communist government, in Japan the communist Red Guards were suppressed, in Korea a massive war was fought and the country was divided. Jeju was no exception, except that the fight turned exceptionally bloody. The March 1 Shooting Incident. Translation of the text of the stone monument to Yeongnam Village (pictured above), one of many villages destroyed during the Jeju Uprising: The massacre was largely ignored by the Korean government for many years. Follow her on twitter @Hy_Choi0826, Specialist news and analysis, research tools, and unique data sets. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',162,'0','0'])); Jeju's isolation had always meant the Seoul government was a distant influence compared to other areas of Korea. Prevailing sentiment on Jeju was that the local government and police forces were made up mostly of those who had readily collaborated with the Japanese occupation, and there was unrest at heavy taxation of agricultural and fishing commodities reminiscent of the Joseon Dynasty. Farming communities between the coast and the heights became the primary battle-zone. responsibilities related to the tragic massacre on Jeju Island. American and Soviet armies stayed separated at the 38th Parallel by a prearranged agreement between United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin. She studied Korean history, mainly focusing on modern Korean history at Korea University. South Koreans are beginning to demand truth about massacre of estimated 30,000 Koreans on Jeju Island between October 1948 and February 1949, part of … It has numerous waterfalls and natural wonders. On November 14, 1947, the United Nations passed UN Resolution 112, calling for a general election over the whole Korean peninsula under the supervision of a UN commission. Thousands were detained on Jeju, then sorted into four groups, labeled A, B, C, and D, based on the security risks each was perceived to pose. In hopes that it would lead to a wider Korean protest, islanders cut phone cables, destroyed railroads, and attacked police stations. The Americans documented the massacre, but never intervened. Lee, Hideko Takayama. The Outbreak of the Jeju 4.3 Uprising and the Response of the USAMGIK At dawn of April 3, 1948, beacons lit on Mt. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply. Prior to the end of World War II, this 15th-century pavilion built to train the mind, body and souls of soldiers, was where Jeju citizens protested and held freedom rallies against Japanese occupation. 3사건, Jeju sasam sageon) was an uprising that occurred on Jeju Island in South Korea from April 1948 to May 1949. For almost fifty years after the uprising, it was a crime punishable by beatings, torture and a lengthy prison sentence if any South Korean even mentioned the events of the Jeju uprising. The Korea Times: Conservatives Downgrade Jeju Uprising in 1948, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Jeju_Uprising&oldid=1011242, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. The NK Pro, NK News and KCNA Watch websites do not support private mode or incognito browsing. On August 30, 1950, according to a written order by a senior intelligence officer in the South Korean Navy, the Jeju police were instructed to "execute all those in groups C and D by firing squad no later than September 6."[4]. 2000. It was a chaotic period right after the independence from Japan and the Korean Peninsula was in the middle of the Cold War. S.Korean scholars, activists visit U.S. to call for shared responsibility for massacre on Jeju Island, In the late 1940s, as tensions over a soon-to-be divided Korean Peninsula simmered, a protest on Jeju Island was ruthlessly suppressed, claiming as many as 30,000 lives.Now a group of scholars and clergy from the island are endeavoring to raise awareness of the U.S. government and military's role in the incident.From March 24-29, the group visited Washington, D.C. to submit the Jeju 4.3 Incident Investigation Report. The April 3rd Mass Uprising, also frequently referred as the Jeju 4.3 Incident or the Jeju Massacre, was the brutal suppression by the Korean government against armed rebellion in Jeju during the period of April 3, 1948 until September 21, 1954. T he volcanic Jeju Island is now a popular honeymoon destination in South Korea, but has a darker history that has only relatively recently begun to be openly discussed: a little over seventy years ago it was the scene of a massacre. In one of its first official acts, the South Korean national assembly passed the National Traitors Act in 1948, which among other measures, outlawed the South Korean Labor Party.[6]. It was a chaotic period right after the independence from Japan and the Korean Peninsula was entering into the Cold War era. I visited my hometown of JeJu Island, South Korea in 2014 to conduct research for The MAGO Project, as well as work on a documentary film about the 1948 Jeju 4.3 (April 3rd) Massacre, a joint action by the South Korean and United States militaries in which approximately 30,000 villagers across the … Fearing that the elections would further reinforce division, guerrilla fighters of the Workers' Party of South Korea (WPSK) reacted violently, attacking local police and rightist youth groups stationed on Jeju Island. The National Committee for the Truth About the Jeju April 3 Incident, Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure. The immensely biodiverse Jeju Island is a most inappropriate location for a deep-water port to host highly armed U.S. and Korean Navy war ships. People who were identified as targets of preventive detention were dragged by soldie... Read More arrow_forward. The government wanted what amounted to a complete surrender, and the rebels demanded disarmament of the local police, dismissal of all governing officials on the island, prohibition of paramilitary groups on the island and reunification of the Korean peninsula. If the Jeju Massacre had a ground zero, it would be Gwandeokjeong Pavilion Square in old Jeju City. Rebels also burned polling centers for the upcoming election and attacked political opponents and their families.They then issued an appeal urging the local population to rise against the American military government. Upset by the partition of the peninsula, the communist South Korean Workers' Party leaders planned rallies all over South Korea on March 1, to denounce and block the upcoming general elections scheduled for May 10. For decades afterwards the South Korean military dictatorship silenced any mention of the 3.4 killings on Jeju Island. In 1992, South Korean President Roh Tae Woo's government sealed up a cave on Mount Halla, where the remains of massacre victims had been discovered. George Wehrfritz, B.J. At many locations around Jeju, the sites where citizens were killed have been marked with simple towers of volcanic stones. The UN Assembly adopted a new resolution calling for elections in areas accessible to the UN Commission, which at that time included only members of the United States Army Military Government in Korea, also known as USMAGIK. The Jeju Uprising On April 3, 1948, the SKLP rose in armed struggle to protest the South Korean elections and to demand a halt to police aggression on the island. The detested Japanese occupation of Korea, which began in 1910, finally ended with Japan's defeat in World War II on August 15, 1945. An estimated 70 percent of the island’s villages burned down. In April 2006, President Roh Moo-hyun officially apologized to the people of Jeju Province for the 4.3 Massacre, and announced that the government had granted the long-held wishes of Jeju's people to gain administrative autonomy. However, the Soviet Union, occupying the northern part of the peninsula, refused to comply with the UN resolution and denied the UN Commission access. In Jeju, it is referred to as the "4.3 Uprising" or "4.3 Massacre" (4.3 referring to April 3); between 30,000 and 60,000 people were killed in fighting between factions. 2. Reporters from Stars and Stripes, published by the U.S. Army provided vivid and uncensored accounts of the South Korean Army’s brutal suppression of the rebellion, the local popular support of the rebels, as well as the rebels' retaliation against government forces. Outraged, the people of Jeju attacked 12 police stations. Ko, an “80-year-old grandmother,” is a witness and survivor of one of the most brutal massacres in South Korean history. “The April 3 rd Uprising and Massacre” is a tragic series of incidents that happened between 1 March 1947 and 21 September 1954 on Jeju Island. Wehrfritz, George, B.J. On April 3, 1948, the police on Jeju island fired on a demonstration commemorating the Korean struggle against Japanese rule. Tuesday April 3, 2018 marked the 70th anniversary of the April 3 Jeju Uprising and Massacre. South Korea's Truth Commission reported 14,373 victims, 86 percent at the hands of the security forces and 13.9 percent at the hands of armed rebels, and estimated that the total death toll was as high as 30,000. Jeju Island marks 70th anniversary of 1948 massacres . Right after the Korean War broke out in 1950, preventive detention swept across Korea and Jeju was no exception. They also attacked political opponents and their families, and issued an appeal urging the local population to rise up and liberate their country from the “American cannibals and their running dogs.”. Jeju is now Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. On August 17, 1949, the rebel leadership of the movement following the killing of major rebel leader Yi Tuk-ku. Symposium on Human Rights and Jeju 4.3 on Thursday, she called for awareness of the Jeju Massacre, or Jeju Uprising, when tens of thousands of victims may have been killed in the South while detained or tortured at the hands of anti-communist police from … The Jeju Uprising or Jeju Massacre (old spelling, "Cheju") refers to the rebellion and subsequent heavy government suppression on Jeju Island, South Korea, beginning April 3, 1948. These men were considered by locals as right-wing thugs. On March 1, 1947, police fired on demonstrators commemorating the 28th year after the March 1st independence movement opposing Japanese, North Korea’s threatening message to the US is a covert nudge for negotiations, Expert roundup: What North Korea’s Eighth Party Congress says about the future, North Korea calls the US its ‘biggest enemy’ and vows to keep developing nukes. Immediately after North Koreainvaded the South across the 38th Parallel on June 25, 1950, the South Korean military ordered "preemptive apprehension" of suspected leftists nationwide. At the U.N. Please enter your username or email address. Ha-young Choi was an NK News correspondent based in Seoul. “The Jeju Island massacre of April 3, 1948, is the ‘red room,’ or the unspeakable history of our past. For 50 years, successive governments in Seoul silenced the Korean people’s memories of systematic murder, rape and torture. Members distributed leaflets and demonstrated. “From the Archives: A quarrel between US military personnel results in the arrest of 200 prostitutes during the Jeju Massacre” This page is subject to change based on further research Officer Lee Mun-gyu was dispatched to Jeju Island from the mainland Chungnam Province Police Agency on Feb. 23, 1947, along with 99 other police reserves. Former Korean President Roh Moo Kyum designated Jeju as “Jeju Island of Global Peace” when he formally apologized for the April 1948 massacre. Was in the Island 's northern Bukchon Village coast and the heights the... Korean military dictatorship silenced any mention of the most brutal massacres in South Korea and was... By locals as right-wing thugs were discovered in a mass grave near International! Chrome, Edge, Firefox or Safari Americans documented the massacre, but never intervened Art,,. Arrest of 2,500 Party cadres on Jeju Island in South Korea. middle of the 3.4 killings on Island... 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