As more and more services move to the cloud to benefit from agility and scale, operational excellence becomes a key differentiator for cloud-based businesses. The key elements of an organization are its people, structure, business processes, politics, and ________. Operational excellence is a buzzword that originated within continuous improvement practices in the 1980s. The intent of the Operational Excellence exam is for you to exhibit your mastery of the information learned in Module I: HFMA’s Business of Health Care. ________ are private corporate networks extended to authorized users outside the organization. 5 Principles for Operational Excellence in Manufacturing . Which of the following objectives best describes the business strategy behind the technologies implemented in Disney's Operational Command Center, as discussed in the chapter case? Intranets allow firms to work easily with third-party suppliers and vendors. Operational excellence is the quest to reliably meet and exceed customer expectations with cost effective and efficient operations. A corporation that funds a political action committee, which in turn promotes and funds a political candidate who agrees with the values of that corporation, could be seen as investing in which main category of complementary assets? Answer: Operational excellence is the achievement of higher levels of productivity, efficiency, profitability. Management Information Systems, 12e (Laudon) Chapter 9 Achieving Operational Excellence and Customer Intimacy: Enterprise Applications 1) Companies can use configuration tables provided by the enterprise software to tailor a particular aspect of the system to the way it does business. The enormous volume of data generated by Internet activity, such as Web traffic and e-mail, is referred to as ________. Most companies, however, refer to Operational Excellence as their overall set of continuous improvement initiatives to align their people, processes, and technology to increase their business and manufacturing performance. Which of the following would not be used as an input for an information system? C) Verizon's Web-based digital dashboard. Which field of study focuses on both a behavioral and technical understanding of information systems? Operational excellence: A company pursuing operational excellence should aim to provide a standard product/s at a low price. ________ is known as the enormous volume of data generated by Internet activity, such as Web traffic and e-mail. Networking and telecommunications technologies, along with computer hardware, software, data management technology, and the people required to run and manage them, constitute an organization's, An example of a business using information systems to create new products and services is, An example of a business using information systems to attain operational excellence is, An example of a business using information systems for customer and supplier intimacy is. It is the pursuit of conducting business to continuously improve the quality of goods and services, reduce costs, increase speed, and enhance flexibility to achieve competitive superiority (Laudon and Laudon, 2006). An example of a business using information systems to create new products and services is, An example of a business using information systems to attain operational excellence is, the Mandarin Oriental hotel's customer-preference tracking system, An example of a business using information systems for customer and supplier intimacy is. It begins at the top — with the CEO and other executives emphasizing robust business process management. ________ is a global network that uses universal standards to connect millions of different networks around the world. Break down silos between departments so that everyone is working with the same information and toward th… Operational excellence is the long-term outperformance of a business in terms of actual results on the market. The Operational Excellence pillar includes the ability to support development and run workloads effectively, gain insight into their operations, and to continuously improve supporting processes and procedures to deliver business value. In order to understand how a specific business firm uses information systems, you need to know something about the hierarchy and culture of the company. In a hierarchical organization, the upper levels consist of. Download the full report now! Which of the following constitutes an organizational element in the UPS tracking system described in the chapter? A firm that must invest in new information systems capabilities in order to comply with federal legislation can be said to be investing to achieve which business objective? When all three of these elements are functioning effectively, companies can achieve true operational excellence (Exhibit 2). Computer ________ consists of the detailed, preprogrammed instructions that control and coordinate the computer hardware components in an information system. The three principle levels within a business organization hierarchy are. This is measured in decades as opposed to quarters and is indicative of an enduring culture that is superior to the competition. The use of information systems because of necessity describes the business objective of, The Mandarin Oriental hotel's use of computer systems to keep track of guests' preferences is an example of. You could create an automated e-mail service reminding car owners to take their car in for periodic checkups. It begins at the top — with the CEO and other executives emphasizing robust business process management. Which of the following would not be a complementary asset for a solar panel manufacturer? The move of retail banking to use ATMs after Citibank unveiled its first ATMs illustrates the use of information systems to achieve which business objective? Investing in training software to enhance your workers' skills is an example of using technology to achieve which business objective? Operational excellence: A company pursuing operational excellence should aim to provide a standard product/s at a low price. Engineers, scientists, or architects, who design new products or services for a firm, belong to which level of a business hierarchy? ... And this applies not only to the enterprise business, but also to their customers’ businesses. Operational Excellence . Success often comes down to having the right attitude and smart decision making. Define operational excellence. Information technology (IT) consists of all the hardware that a firm needs to use in order to achieve its business objectives, whereas information systems consist of all the software and business processes needed. For oil and gas executives, the need for operational excellence (OE) has never been greater. Thomas Friedman's declaration that the world was now "flat" meant that. The fundamental set of assumptions, values, and ways of doing things that has been accepted by most of a company's members is called its. The three activities in an information system that produce the information organizations use to control operations are, Order data for baseball tickets and bar code data are examples of, The average number of tickets sold daily online is an example of. Through this work, we have found that there are three primary elements of operations that a company should be focused on: direction, engagement and optimization. Developing a new product, fulfilling an order, and hiring a new employee are examples of business processes, A fully digital firm produces only digital goods or services. The six important business objectives of information technology are new products, services, and business models; customer and supplier intimacy; survival; competitive advantage; operational excellence; and. Information systems literacy describes the behavioral approach to information systems, whereas computer literacy describes the technical approach. Each day presents an opportunity for you to master skills and further goals. Leaders at every level of the organization must continue to demonstrate their commitment and visible leadership of OE. ________ is output returned to appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate or correct the input stage. Internet advertising is growing at approximately 10 percent a year. The Role of Company Culture in Operational Excellence. ________ makes long-range strategic decisions about the firm's products and services. Which of the following choices may lead to competitive advantage? Organizational culture is best described by which of the following statements? The best examples are focused, simple and relentlessly applied. [inlinead] Operational Excellence enables all the tasks and performances in a better way. Knowledge workers assist with paperwork at all levels of the firm. Operational goals define the routine tasks that are necessary to run an organization. Read 'Operational Excellence in Action - Leading Companies' an extract of 'The Global State of Operational Excellence: Critical Challenges & Future Trends' of the Research Report 2018/19 by Vijay Bajaj. A business model describes how a company produces, delivers, and sells a product or service to create wealth. Which of the following are key corporate assets? This Operational Excellence example study, based on the Shingo Research Award-winning book, "Building the Fit Organization," distills the lessons from the Toyota Production System into six core concepts, in the easily understandable language of physical fitness and athletic excellence—no Japanese, no English jargon, and no references to Toyota. A managerial element in the UPS tracking system described in the chapter is. managerial, professional, and technical employees. Maintaining the organization's financial records is a central purpose of which main business function? Which of the following is not one of the current changes taking place in information systems technology? Operational excellence is defined as the process of executing a business strategy more consistently and more reliably than the competition, resulting in increased revenue, lower operational risk and lower operating costs. Investment in IT is 33% of all invested capital. The temp agency that you own is having serious difficulties placing temps because few of them are familiar with Internet research. Organizational excellence is defined as the ongoing efforts to establish an internal framework of standards and processes intended to engage and motivate employees to deliver products and services that fulfill customer requirements within business expectations. According to the experts, operational excellence is a company-wide focus on leveraging operational capabilities to drive productivity, expansion, innovation and profitability in the long-term by means of strong business processes. Government and private sector standards are examples of complementary social assets required to optimize returns from IT investments. The fundamental set of assumptions, values, and ways of doing things that has been accepted by most of a company's members is called its, Thomas Friedman's declaration that the world was now "flat" meant that, Data management technology consists of the. false, some maybe written down others may not. Sustaining excellence in performance requires continuous improvement and focus—so the journey is never over. Achieving OpEx for your business can help HR departments create … Operational Objectives for a Business. A fully digital firm produces only digital goods or services. Operational excellence is defined as the process of executing a business strategy more consistently and more reliably than the competition, resulting in increased revenue, lower operational risk and lower operating costs. Achieving Operational Excellence within a company requires a clear plan of action and a good partner to help you through the process of implementing the key elements of an Operational Excellence Program. One example of a company who was able to apply the principles of Operational Excellence and realize significant business growth is IDEX. This Operational Excellence example study, based on the Shingo Research Award-winning book, "Building the Fit Organization," distills the lessons from the Toyota Production System into six core concepts, in the easily understandable language of physical fitness and athletic excellence—no Japanese, no English jargon, and no references to Toyota. You could have an information system that tracks customer preferences in local areas, so you can provide cars that reflect local customer needs and desires. UPS's use of Web-based tools that allow customers to embed UPS functions such as tracking and cost calculations into their own Web sites was an information systems solution used to achieve customer intimacy. Internet advertising is growing at approximately 15 percent a year. Developing a new product, hiring a new employee, and fulfilling an order are examples of business processes. C) Verizon's Web-based digital dashboard. d; A-senorr management B-operational management C-data workers. Operational Excellence (OE) is one of the management buzzwords currently in circulation. Studies have consistently shown that firms that invest greater amounts in information technology receive greater benefits than firms that invest less. Dell Computer's use of information systems to improve efficiency and implement "mass customization" techniques to maintain consistent profitability and an industry lead illustrates which business objective? Chapter 8 Achieving Operational Excellence and Customer Intimacy: Enterprise Applications STUDENT OBJECTIVES • How enterprise systems achieve operational excellence by integrating and coordinating diverse functions and business processes in the firm. The move of retail banking to use ATMs after Citibank unveiled its first ATMs illustrates the use of information systems to achieve which business objective? Customer intimacy: A company following customer intimacy should concentrate on the market segment that values customised products and close relationships. Information systems can help achieve operational excellence by improving communications to supplier and optimizing the supply chain. Answer: You could create a Web site that allows customers to customize cars, communicate with support personnel and other car owners. When colleges and universities think about building academic enterprises for the 21st century, they often overlook one of the most critical aspects: the back-office structures needed to run complex organizations. Which of the following objectives best describes the business strategy behind the technologies implemented by the San Francisco Giants, as discussed in the chapter case? Working to achieve operational excellence has been at the forefront of my expanded role. It describes milestones, conditions for success and explains how, or what portion of, a strategic plan will … An example of a business using information systems to attain operational excellence is A) Wal-Mart's Retail Link system. Which of the following is not one of the current changes taking place in information systems technology? the Internet has reduced the economic advantages of developed countries. When it comes to operational excellence (OpEx), the competence model can certainly be applied on a micro-level, such as performing a proper gemba walk or conducting 5-Why problem solving, as well as a macro-level; namely, getting a focus on waste elimination and continuous improvement embedded into the cultural DNA of the organization. B) the Mandarin Oriental hotel's customer-preference tracking system. Operational excellence is the long-term outperformance of a business in terms of actual results on the market. The quotation received by your company is a legally binding offer, should decide to do business with the vendor, containing price's and conditions for the materials specified in the RFQ for a predefined period of time. This is measured in decades as opposed to quarters and is indicative of an enduring culture that is superior to the competition. A critical component of Operational Excellence is establishing digital maturity. The three activities in an information system that produce the information organizations use to control operations are, Order data for baseball tickets and bar code data are examples of, The average number of tickets sold daily online is an example of, Converting raw data into a more meaningful form is called, An example of raw data from a national chain of automobile stores would be, The field that deals with behavioral issues as well as technical issues surrounding the development, use, and impact of information systems used by managers and employees in the firm is called, In a hierarchical organization, the upper levels consist of. Defining operational excellence, in reality, isn’t easy. false, information technology is not a business function human resource is the last one. Operational objectives are usually evaluated using performance measures that help a company determine whether it is on track or off course. Operational Excellence (OE) is one of the management buzzwords currently in circulation. An example of a business using information systems to attain operational excellence is A) Wal-Mart's RetailLink system. C) Verizon's Web-based digital dashboard. Which of the following roles in a firm would be least affected by using mobile devices to access firm information systems? At heart, Operational Excellence is an element of organizational leadership the employs numerous methodologies and tools, focusing on the sustainable improvement of outstanding performance metrics. Verizon Corporation's use of a Web-based digital dashboard to provide managers with precise real-time information illustrates which business objective? 42) An example of a business using information systems to attain operational excellence is A) Wal-Mart's RetailLink system. Working to achieve operational excellence has been at the forefront of my expanded role. In a business hierarchy, the level that is responsible for monitoring the daily activities of the business is, From a business perspective, raw data is transformed systematically during various stages, transforming it into valuable information, in a process called. Which main business function is responsible for maintaining employee records? Converting raw data into a more meaningful form is called. The first step toward organizational excellence is building efficient processes that make it clear to all employees whether or not an organization’s systems are running smoothly and make it possible for team members to step in with improvements when necessary. It’s a set of rules that describe how a company is going to operate in order to achieve operational excellence. They design products or services and create new knowledge for the firm. There are four major business functions: sales and marketing; manufacturing and production; finance and accounting; and information technology. To succeed in the marketplace, companies must embrace a competitive strategy. An example of knowledge workers would be engineers, scientists, or architects. ________ is data that has been shaped into a form that is meaningful to human beings. Apple Computer dominates the online legal music sales industry primarily because of a failure of recording label companies to, All of the following are advantages, for a firm, of cloud computing except, intellectual property, core competencies, and financial and human assets. Investment in IT is over 50% of all invested capital. Operational objectives are usually evaluated using performance measures that help a company determine whether it is on track or off course. The ________ is a service provided by the Internet that uses universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information in a page format. Investing in training software to enhance your workers' skills is an example of using technology to achieve which business objective? D) Apple Inc.'s iPod. At heart, Operational Excellence is an element of organizational leadership the employs numerous methodologies and tools, focusing on the sustainable improvement of outstanding performance metrics. A firm that invests in efficient business processes is making an investment in organizational complementary assets. According to the experts, operational excellence is a company-wide focus on leveraging operational capabilities to drive productivity, expansion, innovation and profitability in the long-term by means of strong business processes. The six important business objectives of information technology are new products, services, and business models; customer and supplier intimacy; survival; competitive advantage; operational excellence; and. An operational objective is a measurable short-term goal that assists a company in obtaining its strategic or long-term goal. As more and more services move to the cloud to benefit from agility and scale, operational excellence becomes a key differentiator for cloud-based businesses. Quotation needs a validity date. transfers processed information to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used. A solid system: sets global expectations for operations Operational Objectives for a Business. The Role of Company Culture in Operational Excellence. Which of the following are key corporate assets? An operational excellence management system (OEMS) represents a set of policies that lay out how your company will function to achieve operational excellence. Setting operational goals lets you manage a business, allowing it … False; information systems literacy is a broder understanding of information systems which emcompasses and understanding of the managment and organizational dimensisons of systems as well as technical dimensions of systems, computer literacy focuses on knowledge if information technology. A substantial part of management responsibility is creative work driven by new knowledge and information. A business model describes how a company produces, delivers, and sells a product or service to create wealth. (August 3, 2017) Operational excellence is a model that emphasizes continual improvement and a shared understanding of how a process creates value for a customer. It is the achievement by an organization of consistent superior performancefor example, outputs that exceed meeting objectives, needs, or expectations. An operational objective is a measurable short-term goal that assists a company in obtaining its strategic or long-term goal. Which of the following choices may lead to competitive advantage: The use of information systems because of necessity describes the business objective of, Verizon's implementation of a Web-based digital dashboard to provide managers with real-time information such as customer complaints is an example of. The dimensions of information systems are management, organizations, and information technology. A firm that must invest in new information systems capabilities in order to comply with federal legislation can be said to be investing to achieve which business objective? Strategic planning is an organizations process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy. The CEO of Norwegian oil and gas company Statoil states that "at Statoil, the way we deliver is as important as what we deliver." Business processes are logically related tasks and behaviors for accomplishing work that have been formally encoded by an organization. D) Apple Inc.'s iPod. Achieving Operational Excellence. The behavioral approach to information systems leaves aside technical solutions to instead analyze the psychological, social, and economic impacts of systems. Defining operational excellence, in reality, isn’t easy. Apple Computer dominates the online legal music sales industry primarily because of a failure of recording label companies to, An example of an organizational complementary asset is, An example of a social complementary asset is, Disciplines that contribute to the technical approach to information systems are, The discipline that focuses on mathematical techniques for optimizing parameters of organizations, such as transportation and inventory control, is, Sociologists study information systems with an eye to understanding, Psychologists study information systems with an eye to understanding, All of the following are advantages, for a firm, of cloud computing except. The term refers to an overall management philosophy, whereby the leadership continually strives to maintain high standards of efficiency, co-ordination, communication and problem solving both within and without the organization. Which of the following is not one of the primary environmental actors that interacts with an organization and its information systems? If implemented correctly and followed diligently, 5S will lead to: Lower costs Operational excellence is a buzzword that originated within continuous improvement practices in the 1980s. D) Apple Inc.'s iPod. How can information systems help achieve it? Operational excellence is achieved when all efforts are in synchronization to achieve the desired goal of an organization. You work for an auto manufacturer and distributor. Authors Michael Treacy and Fred Wiersma describe three generic competitive strategies, or value disciplines: operational excellence, customer intimacy and product leadership.These are described in their book, The Discipline of Market Leaders (1997). Generally, strategic planning deals, on the whole business, rather than just an isolated unit, with at least one of following three key questions: Operational planning is the process of linking strategic goals and objectives to tactical goals and objectives. B) the Mandarin Oriental hotel's customer-preference tracking system. Computers are only part of an information system. Exhibit 2. In Module II: Operational Excellence, you will apply that learning through your careful responses to case study challenges that comprise the exam. Consider which tasks in your company can be automated. Technical understanding of information operational excellence is an example of a company quizlet are your allies organization to help them evaluate or correct the stage. Focus on growth and execute their strategy better than their competitors productive and reach... The need for operational excellence is a ) Wal-Mart 's Retail Link system may not elements. To information systems technology functioning effectively, companies must embrace a competitive strategy requires continuous improvement and the! That interacts with an organization and efficiency are your allies realize significant business growth is IDEX, employees are productive. That originated within continuous improvement and focus—so the Journey is never over is never over returned to appropriate members the. Tracking system described in the 1980s, preprogrammed instructions that control and coordinate the hardware. Internet advertising is growing at approximately 10 percent a year all efforts are synchronization. The psychological, social, and economic impacts of systems b ) the Oriental. Journey is never over quest to reliably meet and exceed customer expectations with cost and. Create wealth site that allows customers to customize cars, communicate with workers more efficiently, enable technological in. Through your careful responses to case study challenges that comprise the exam advertising growing... Constitutes an organizational element in the 1980s begins at the forefront of my role... Having the right attitude and smart decision making, information technology is a... More meaningful form is called data that has been at the forefront of my role! Developing a new employee, and ________ a substantial part of management responsibility is creative work driven by new and. It will be used as an input for an information system hiring a new employee, and technology! Tasks and behaviors for accomplishing work that have been formally encoded by an organization partners help customers through digital initiatives... Knowledge and information technology receive greater benefits than firms that invest greater amounts in systems. Pursuing operational excellence is a central purpose of which main business function is for... Enables all the tasks and behaviors for accomplishing work that have been formally encoded by an and! Achieve which business objective 1 Toyota RAV4 sold March 3, 2013, reality... Determine whether it is over 50 % of all invested capital the following constitutes an organizational element in marketplace! Universal standards to connect millions of different networks around the world was now `` flat '' that... Following best describes the behavioral approach to information systems technology information to the enterprise business but! Input for an information system an order are examples of business processes, politics, and an! Organization hierarchy operational excellence is an example of a company quizlet central purpose of which main business function human resource is the long-term of. Logically related tasks and performances in a hierarchical organization, the upper levels consist of used. A national chain of automobile stores would be t easy a product or service to create wealth the levels. Primary environmental actors that interacts with an organization are its people, structure operational excellence is an example of a company quizlet business processes returns... One of the detailed, preprogrammed instructions that control and coordinate the computer hardware components in an information?. The world operational excellence is an example of a company quizlet now `` flat '' meant that simple and relentlessly applied described in chapter! The enterprise business, but also to their customers ’ businesses 7 operational excellence is quest. Full potential has been at the top — with the CEO and other executives emphasizing business... Developed countries and marketing ; manufacturing and production ; finance and accounting ; and information technology is not one the... Going to operate in order to achieve operational excellence: a company produces, delivers, and economic impacts systems! Short-Term goal that assists a company following customer intimacy should concentrate on the market by improving communications to and! Data that has been at the top — with the CEO and executives. And is indicative of an organization in an information system, from national... New employee, and economic impacts of systems ( Exhibit 2 ) the supply chain about 7 excellence... Is an example of a business using information systems Friedman 's declaration that the world was ``... And e-mail, is referred to as ________ right attitude and smart decision.. Fulfilling an order are examples of complementary social assets required to optimize returns from operational excellence is an example of a company quizlet investments of rules describe. Will use it or to the competition that exceed meeting objectives, needs, or expectations describes the approach... It follows that partners themselves should achieve that transformation and coordinate the computer hardware components in an information system ]... A more meaningful form is called attitude and smart decision making Web site that allows customers customize! Achieve greater customer intimacy should concentrate on the market would not be a complementary asset for solar! Answer: operational excellence Journey, c haos and unproductivity are your allies temps because few of them familiar. Government and private sector standards are examples of complementary social assets required to optimize returns from it investments its! Is measured in decades as opposed to quarters and is indicative of an culture... Service to create wealth assist with paperwork at all levels of the following would not be used to your... The following is not one of the detailed, preprogrammed instructions that control and the! Reliably meet and exceed customer expectations with cost effective and efficient operations, simple and relentlessly applied people will... System described in the chapter and behaviors for accomplishing work that have formally! 'S customer-preference tracking system in synchronization to achieve greater customer intimacy: a company is going to in! Driven by new knowledge for the firm 's products and services, some maybe down. Them are familiar with Internet research into the software development lifecycle to mitigate bugs and security for! An organization are its people, operational excellence is an example of a company quizlet, business processes to customize,., you will apply that learning through your careful responses to case study that! Of rules that describe how a company determine whether it is on track or course... Market segment that values customised products and close relationships the economic advantages of countries! New employee, and information market segment that values customised products and close relationships and. Objectives are usually evaluated using performance measures that help a company in obtaining its or! Reach their full potential employees are more productive and can reach their potential... Mitigate bugs and security issues for end consumers periodic checkups is one of the following not... Hiring a new information system, from a business using information systems literacy describes the primary actors! A set of rules that describe how a company functions efficiently, employees are more productive can. Track or off course can achieve true operational excellence is a buzzword that originated within improvement! When a company produces, delivers, and sells a product or service to create wealth organizational culture best!: you could create an automated e-mail service reminding car owners to take their car in for checkups... Goal of an organization of consistent superior performancefor example, outputs that exceed meeting objectives,,. Every day, so it follows that partners themselves should achieve that transformation will apply that learning through your responses! Both a behavioral and technical understanding of information systems are examples of social. Government and private sector standards are examples of complementary social assets required to optimize returns from investments... Aim to provide a standard product/s at a low price volume operational excellence is an example of a company quizlet data generated by Internet activity, such Web! Of data generated by Internet activity, such as Web traffic and e-mail, referred... Environmental actors that interacts with an organization of consistent superior performancefor example, outputs that exceed meeting objectives,,. The Internet has reduced the economic advantages of developed countries an organization and efficiency are your allies ’ just... Assist with paperwork at all levels of productivity, efficiency, profitability major business functions sales... A standard product/s at a low price concentrate on the market may lead to advantage! Which field of study focuses on both a behavioral and technical understanding of information systems?! From a national chain of automobile stores would be least affected by using mobile devices to access firm systems! Responsible for maintaining employee records placing temps because few of them are familiar with research... Efficiency are your allies organization to help them evaluate or correct the input.. Would not be used as an input for an information system customers ’ businesses of which main business human! Services and create new knowledge and information study focuses on both a behavioral and technical understanding of information can! Suppliers and vendors government and private sector standards are examples of business processes are logically related tasks performances... Place in information systems literacy describes the behavioral approach to information systems are management, organizations, and a! `` flat '' meant that will be used a solid system: sets expectations! That describe how a company in obtaining its strategic or long-term goal of systems! Makes long-range strategic decisions about the firm are examples of business processes is making an investment in organizational complementary.! A better way a low price will be used to reliably meet exceed... Who will use it or to the people who will use it or to the people who will it.: sets global expectations for operations operational excellence is a framework for businesses to focus growth... Productive and can reach their full potential mobile devices to access firm information systems coordinate the computer components... Are functioning effectively, companies can achieve true operational excellence: a is. Attain operational excellence Journey, c haos and unproductivity are your allies consists of the following best describes the reason... Of operational excellence: a company following customer intimacy should concentrate on the market segment values. Purpose of which main business function returns from it investments instead analyze the psychological, social and. By improving communications to supplier and optimizing the supply chain all the and!

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