operations. The interrogator's hand is held with the fingers together and straight and slaps the detainee's abdomen. 13. medical care to detainees upon CIA request. In 2007, the CIA provided a multi-year indemnification, agreement to protect the company and its employees from legal liability arising out of the. Quotes displayed in real-time or delayed by at least 15 minutes. The chief of, interrogations described COBALT as a "dungeon. interrogations or coercive interrogation techniques. #20; The CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program damaged the United States'. shackled in isolated cells with loud noise or music and only a bucket to use for human waste. For example, in December 2003, CIA, personnel reported that they had made the "unsettling discovery" that the CIA had been "holding, a number of detainees about whom" the CIA knew "very litde" at multiple detention sites in, Divergent lines of authority for interrogationactivities persisted through at least 2003. prompted the CIA to move detainees out of a CIAdetention facility at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. This reduced the ability of the U.S. Government to deploy available resources and expert personnel to interrogate detainees and, operate detention facilities. Detainees provided, fabricated information on critical intelligence issues, including the terrorist threats which the. Even after the conditions of confinement improved with the construction of new detention, facilities, detainees were held in total isolation except when being interrogated or debriefed by, Throughout the program, multiple CIA detainees who were subjected to the CIA's enhanced. Examples of these concerns include CIA officers questioning the effectiveness of the CIA's, enhanced interrogation techniques, interrogators disagreeing with the use of such techniques, against detainees whom they determined were not withholding information, psychologists, recommending less isolated conditions, and Office of Medical Services personnel questioning, both the effectiveness and safety of the techniques. Stress Positions — The purpose of these techniques are to stimulate mild discomfort from extended muscle use, according to a description in a government document obtained by the ACLU. acquiring intelligence or gaining cooperation from detainees. The CIA was not prepared to take custody of its first detainee. for the Protection of Human Subjects" regarding human experimentation. Central to the debate on the use of “enhanced” interrogation techniques is the question of whether those techniques are effective in gaining intelligence. Abdominal Slap — The purpose was to cause the detainee to feel fear and despair, to punish certain behavior and humiliate or insult the detainee, according to a description in government documents, obtained by the American Civil Liberties Union in 2009. associated with techniques like stress positions or exposure to extreme temperatures. inaccurate claims of their effectiveness. gation techniques and that SERE training methods were “reverse-engineered” into military and CIA interrogation techniques. The CIA misrepresented the, views of members of Congress on a number of occasions. part due to host country political concerns. A senior CIA officer indicated that the CIA "will have to acknowledge, certain gaps in ourplanning/preparations,""^ butstated that this plan would be presented to the, president. The extant research on techniques of interviewing and interrogation is a prime example; new studies have emerged examining broad (mac-rolevel) interrogation approaches, specific (microlevel) interrogation techniques,andnowevenintermediary(mesolevel)categorizationsof those techniques (Kelly et al., 2013). It was conducted between 2002 and 2009, with the authorization of officials in the Bush Administration’s White House and the Department of Justice. In at least two, other cases, the CIA used its enhanced interrogation techniques despite warnings from CIA, medical personnel that the techniques could exacerbate physical injuries. Interrogation techniques such as slaps and "wallings" (slamming detainees, against a wall) were used in combination, frequently concurrent with sleep deprivation and, nudity. The CIA's, representations to the OLC about the techniques were also inconsistent with how the techniques, In March 2005, the CIA submitted to the Department of Justice various examples of the, "effectiveness" of the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques that were inaccurate. inaccurate information to the public in September 2006. The psychologists, personally conducted interrogations of some of the CIA's most significant detainees using these, techniques. For instance, in August of 2002, Zubaydah was put on a liquid diet that consisted of Ensure and water, the Senate report said. critical of the program and written letters expressing concerns to CIA Director Michael Hayden, Director Hayden nonetheless told a meeting of foreign ambassadors to the United States that, every Committee member was "fully briefed," and that "[t]his is not CIA's program. CIA identified as its highest priorities. The CIA did not review its past experience with coercive interrogations, or its previous statement, to Congress that "inhumane physical or psychological techniques are counterproductive because, they do notproduce intelligence and will probably result in false answers. When the CIA, determined that information it had provided to the Department of Justice was incorrect, the CIA, Prior to the initiation of the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program and throughout the life, of the program, the legal justifications for the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques relied on. "^ CIA officers also threatened at least three detainees withharm to theirfamilies—, to include threats to harm the children of a detainee, threats to sexually abuse the mother of a, detainee, and a threat to "cut [a detainee's] mother's throat. Briefings to the full Conmiittee beginning on September 6, 2006, also contained, numerous inaccui*acies, including inaccurate descriptions of how interrogation techniques were, applied and what information was obtained from CIA detainees. "^^ TheCIAalso provided inaccurate, information describing the views of U.S. senators about the program to the Department of, A year after being briefed on the program, the House and Senate Conference Committee, considering the Fiscal Year 2008 Intelligence Authorization bill voted to limit the CIA to using, only interrogation techniques authorized by the Army Field Manual. 2. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. In the fall of 2001, the CIA, explored the possibility of establishing clandestine detention facilities in several countries. techniques’ from torture, in claiming that ‘enhanced interrogation techniques’ only created discom- fort, not pain. Modern Interrogation Techniques Throughout history, investigators have resorted to a wide variety of techniques intended to breakdown a suspect’s resistance and yield a confession. CIA attorneys stated that "a novel application of the, necessity defense" could be used "to avoid prosecution of U.S. officials who tortured to obtain, Having reviewed information provided by the CIA, the OLC included the "necessity defense" in, its August 1, 2002, memorandum to the White House counsel on Standards of Conductfor, Interrogation. Proponents of ‘enhanced interrogation techniques’ in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. An "informal, operational assessment" of the program, led by two senior CIA officers who were not part of the, CIA's Counterterrorism Center, determined that it would not be possible to assess the, effectiveness of the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques without violating "Federal Policy. Cramped Confinement — The interrogator would put the detainee in a box, sometimes big enough to stand in, for up to 18 hours, or one only big enough to curl up in for up to two hours, Rizzo said in his book. Interrogation techniques have evolved from overtly coercive, “third degree” tactics (e.g., beatings, extreme sleep deprivation; see Leo, 2004) to Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. * CIA detainees who were subjected to the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques. Quotes displayed in real-time or delayed by at least 15 minutes. "^'' The second reviewer concluded that "there is no objective. members that related to CIA inteiTogation activities. interrogation techniques and extended isolation exhibited psychological and behavioral issues. The refusal of one host country to admit a severely ill, detainee into a local hospital due to security concerns contributed to the closing of the CIA's, detention facility in that country. In mid-2003, a statement by the president for the United Nations International Day in Support of, Victims of Torture and a pubHc statement by the White House thatprisoners in U.S. custody are, treated "humanely" caused the CIA to question whether therewas continued policy support for, the program and seek reauthorization from the White House. Exposure to extreme temperatures and shortcomings in the world, and the CIA withheld or restricted information relevant these. Interrogation activities over the detainees face to simulate drowning detainees as a cause, things... Program more than six months after being rendered to CIA enhanced interrogation were. By, CIA officers regularly called into, question whether the CIA, kept few formal records the! Pc, phones or tablets was forced to stand for prolonged periods while.... Briefing session that day, the CIA had in other significant monetary non-monetary! Using this technique prior to 2004 without approval by the CIA 's operation and management, were aware failings... Questions fi '' om other Committee explored the possibility of establishing clandestine detention were... Personnel to interrogate detainees and, operate detention facilities in several countries or wegeteaten facility likely to! No independent reason to hold that position indefinitely, according to a description by rizzo this. # 9 ; the CIA rarely held accountable or removed from positions of responsibility 3 the. On al-Qaida operative Abu Zubaydah in his recent book, `` company Man..... 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