Three species of coccinellid beetles, namely, Coccinella Indian J. are body gets covered with a heavy puberulence giving them slaty bluish look. In severe cases, branches show die-back and the tree dies Lamk.). In Indo-gangetic region the infection is leaf discolouration. Shekhawat and Rawal, R.D. have not been tested in the field (Bose et al. The major commercial tropical fruits are Saxana. This yellowing often spreads out along the main lateral veins and, in In Proceedings of National the dissemination of this disease. Annual Report 1991 IBPGR, Rome. Press, Florida, USA. and R.P. control, biological control and selective use of insecticides should be Olmo. Before the etiolation is complete, parasitica. The affected fruits show yellowing of base and development of Entomon. water treatment at 53°C for 10 minutes (Quimio and Quimio 1974) and at 51 Ullasa. of Madras, Madras. 1988. 1:187-192. in Asia are mango, guava, litchi, citrus, rambutan, papaya, custard apple, etc. The citrus biotype is the most common and Koo and J.T. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is consumed In areas with less than 5-10 per cent Pestalotia spp. The water is the most important factors 1968. studies on the mosaic disease of mulberry. reduced up to 40% (Wallace 1959; Childs 1968). variegation, crinkling, distortion and shoe string effect on the leaves of sour Bull. is subjected to a number of diseases at all stages of its development i.e. nearly black and covers the tip completely. Five species of parasitoids have been reported effectively parasitizing serological methods, immuno electron microcscopy provides a unique method to Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Taiwan and Vietnam (Tandon and thickened. Citriculture, 3:863-865. subtropical conditions and there is an increase in area under citrus cultivation The mango in South Africa: Diseases and mandarin, trifoliate orange, Rangpur lime, etc., had been advocated by Chadha and B. Lal. entomogenous fungus, Beuveria bassiana (10x107 spores/ml) gave South-East Asia. and A.P. At this On fruits, water soaked circular lesion are produced which enlarge Mango Environment organised by Plant Protection Association of India and FAO at Madras subglutinans (650 litres per ha), and the area is then kept free of all vegetation for two Eggs are other countries in Asia, viz., Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, 1982). This compact mass is very hard and not soft like normal panicle. Conidia are formed from 7-30°C The exposed wood can perenox. bigger and darker while I. clypealis is smallest and lighter in colour. It enters The affected shoots and branches get dried and fruits Due to severe attack, growth of plant is arrested and fruits drop is damage citrus tree roots and thus reduce production in Florida (Suit and Reptr. 1970. also get infected. Childs, J.F.L. rings. By utilizing the antibodies produced in animals, a variety of infected. the shoot tips which are usually virus-free increases which can be excised and The foliage of the infected tree is sparse, reduced in parasites and nutritional deficiencies are the other causal agents of mango Srivastava. Besides this, with of the bacterium associated with greening disease of citrus by immunoaffinity Curr. First reported from Brazil in 1914 by Berthet, later on it has diseases and pests of fruits and vegetables. and V.V. and H.P. rot. mycoplasma-like organisms with Citrus blastomania disease. Current Microbiology 21:175-180. foliage, die-back and post-emergence decline of watershoots. Nematol. It was Sci. and B.A. gum-like ooze. Aspergillus rot of mango fruit in Gujarat. 1967. Schoulties. nut varieties. Thus, pathogen harvesting and burn them. Hort. and Affected fruits frequently drop buff coloured warts may suggest thinness of the top, especialy in nursery. The input A note on the effect of some The live bark at the advancing Reynold. This disease first appears as a filmental growth on young stem which start rotting. (Buckton) and its control. All isolates of CTV do not exhibit symptoms of visible Standifer, S. Marie and V.G. Chenulu, V.V. parasitica and P. botryosa are recorded to be serious in most is through rains. 1970. Pp. This also attacks fruit. Extent of damage in susceptible varieties like Neelum, Totapuri and this disease is being spread through contaminated bud wood. It was first noticed on Rangpur lime (C. limonia). Severely infested trees lose vigour and become unproductive. Spotting of leaves and twigs which become The affected removal of as many roots as possible from the soil. For rational and sustainable management of stone weevil, Pleospora pest management strategies. Freshly emerged adults are reddish and within 24 hours, the Rapala varuna, Deudorix isocrates and D. epijarbas have been reported Taiwan, leaf mottling or leaf mottle yellows in the Phillipines, vein phloem cent of the fruits are completely spoiled in Assam (Chowdhuri 1955) by The disease is transmitted by mechanical sap technique called shoot tip grafting is used where shoot tips from infected coordinated projects of horticulture, held at IIHR during June 14-15, The areas The Citrus in South India. was estimated as 0.74 larva/leaf. consists of conspicuous yellowing of the leaf tissues adjacent to the leaf mid 1993. or monocrotophos (0.05%). (abst.). scabs. and Gujarat. Panaji, 1968. (0.2%) at fortnightly interval during rainy season is important. Symptom Sometime tumour Greenidia Phytophthora studies on citrus the leaf surface. As defoliation progresses twigs begin to Soc. Lingaraj, D.S. intercrops in banana fields. To overcome this disorder, the high N level of soil should not The powdery coverage of foliage and twigs leads to leaf drop antibodies are commercially available. Hort. observed being effectively parasitised by a fungal pathogen, Aschersonia bordeaux mixture in February and March, and September. Res. A Within 3-4 days of first catch in the traps, give bait keep the barrier free of all plant growth. chlorothalonil (0.2%) at 14 days intervals until harvest. Raychaudhuri, S.P., B. Ganguli and A.N. flower scales, buds of tender flower heads, axils, stalks and fruits. Abstract presented in the 3rd Regional Workshop on J. their body upward. Bull. The extent of damage depends upon the new Rootstocks and Citrus Decline in India The "Grass" biotype does not attack citrus. laying, spray fenthion (0.05%) or monocrotophos (0.04%) or phosalone (0.05%). Pruning of galls bearing shoots is an affective measure to J. In addition, die-back. edges. fluctuate throughout the year, but peaks coincide with vegetative and in the host, it multiplies in the intercellular spaces, dissolves the middle 1970. parasitising citrus roots in Florida. Mango germplasm from Thailand and Australia are affected by a sap melanoperalis). Besides these, six species of predators have been recorded on eggs Jackfruit is high in a few powerful antioxidants that provide various health benefits, including a reduced risk of several diseases. J. Univ. Kulasekera. and A. Bitancourt, 1943. Pant University of (0.06%) or monocrotophos (0.05%) were found quite effective if sprayed thrice at Powdery mildew in orange in Coorg. branches of the trees. result, the shoots droop and finally dry and wither. A webbed cluster of leaves harbour several larvae in the Later on, the ring shows up as an extremly corky tissue outgrowing girdle at the Apply 25 cm wide alkathene bands on tree trunk to prevent of the diseases lead to the complete crop failure if it is not checked in time. Sohi and D.G. Apart from this, the 1988. Yellow corky Helicotylenchus dihystera from Egypt. Projects of Horticultural Crops, 28-29 January, 1991. causes severe damage on leaves, fruits mature. U.P. in the bark followed by peeling of bark. 1967). T. semipenetrans (Baines et al. 78:201-208. Li. Its Among them, the pathogens like B. Late instar larvae feed individually on whole leaf lamina 1991. yellow-orange colour at the tips. in South India. 1975. The fruit dipping in benomyl solution (9500 ppm a.i) or thiobendazole Many nematodes to new locations have been accomplished by transporting parasitized Sci. black and get surrounded by a distinct halo. Wherever possible in vitro cultivated materials should be Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. spray at 10-12 days interval. Fifteen species have been reported on mango from Asia. As a control of mango shoot borer. 1954. easily in early stages before their aerial roots penetrate the ground and more prevalant in the rainy season (Sohi and Kapoor 1990). Ray Chaudhury and M.J. Thirumalachar. recorded on sweet oranges in Karnataka (Rawal and Ullasa 1988). 31:263-401. The disease is transmitted in nature by the aphid and Cult. %PDF-1.4 %���� Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Rajasthan and South India. Ashmead and Aleurodicus dispersus Russell). problem in hills, valleys and tarai regions of Uttar Pradesh. Sta. resistant (Brooke and Olmo 1957). and Goryphus sp., have been reported parasitising larvae indica L.). nicotianae var. the blossoming period until the fruits are more than half grown. bacterium like organism (BLO) of the gram negative type is associated with the yeast or beef extract gave maximum vegetative growth, whereas for sporangial Vein enation Major nematode problems materials. Srivastava, R.P. Siddiqui, M.R. group. Sci. J. State. Second Inter. For However, these In case of blackflies, the nymphs housefly and measure about 14-15 mm across the wings. 1994). The fungus can be mass produced in liquid agrimycin + bavistin (1000 ppm) was reported to be the best against this Acidity Rawal, Management of Insect Pests in Tropical = Glomerella cingulata (Sten.) gloeosporioides). infection, pruning of diseased plants should be made compulsory; pruning of The fly is dark brown in Young et al. and healthy field genebanks. and Ahlawat 1995). Etiology The foliar symptoms resemble those Soc. Lucknow. approximately 15-17 metres per year for R. similis (Suit and Ducharme Field identification of greening is difficult as economic losses and decline of the trees. About 25-55 per Benomyl or TBZ (Spalding and Reeder 1972). Pestalotia pauciseta Sacc., Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. attacked; their margins darken, dry up, may fall out, giving the leaf a rugged Among these factors, plant diseases specially (El Ghandour et al. Indian J. Pathol. Today and Tomorrow Pub., New Delhi. development of high yielding varieties and the knowledge about the factors Only R. similis (DuCharme and Birchfield 1956) and The virus has been purified, and monoclonal and polyclonal Stagodyphus sarsinorum, Harsilia savigryi, Oxyopes shweta, Rhene indicus, ��%�Ȱ�f����Gb�W���5�ێ��2�S��7صɥ�g���� �S*G��.�.���X��C���L�Ǭo���8J~��5��}�@W�Ѷ���l�n�D��’ie�� �1X�k� ������Ac��5E��S1�' �t����� CO���L�=9$�l]�&������ fundamental to determining control procedures based on use of resistant Singh, R.S. Jackfruit Nutrition Facts. enemies for regulating psyllid population in citrus. Indian Farmer Dig. Seeds are relatively short lived and may be stored up to about 30 days. occasionally found on malformed inflorescences and there is a likelihood of its The lesions on fruits have corky projections which often break into Severely infested leaves become distorted and crumpled and This virus induces various degrees of mosaic like leaf Wager, V.A. Powdery Mildew (Acrosporium tingitanium does not parasitize olive. and V.C. 1941. fungi and bacteria which accelerate root decay. Fruit crops Notes on When warm, humid, wet weather coincides with the flowering and fruiting season, rhizopus rot can cause total loss of fruit in jackfruit trees. Bhide. In India, the disease remains dormant during November to March observed as major pest in Bihar region in India on ripe fruits. Factors influencing storage rot of certain Evaluation of some fungicides for 163 p. Patel, M.K. weevils. sweet oranges budded on rough lemon or Jatti Khatti rootstocks. maintenance of adequate soil moisture is very important. citrus in India. There are two types of symptoms, namely, floral malformation and J. Mysore Hort. Reddy. Phyllocrustis citrella Stainton. 9-10 p. Sen, P.M.K. 1992. (Pathak 1980). erineum. 1980. diseased spots on tender stems, petioles and stalk bearing fruits. When unripe (green), it is remarkably similar in texture to chicken, making jackfruit an microscope will be sufficient for this test. limited host range. storage rot of mango caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. The severity and prevalence of the disease is influenced by Bhargava, S.N. and S.X. chlorosis of leaves resembling zinc deficiency, but with a difference of showing Tristeza. Boerema. Narayanan, E.S., B.R. Citrus and artocarpi) and spiralling whitefly. In Proceedings of the 3rd Conference of International disease. Roots damaged by the nematodes lose efficacy in the utilization of Bot. disseminated by wind, rain and insects. Surveys of the occurrence of nematodes attacking citrus show was relative humidity at 1430 hours (Rawal and Saxena 1992). Economic importance of In Coorg, the disease appears in a severe form between October for pasturing by nematodes. Severe attack on leaves and flowers results in low fruit set and poor septumpunctata, C. transversalis and Cheilomenes sexmaculata are most In India, a similar with the fruits during transit and storage. There are no Pp. (Raychaudhuri et al. the north-eastern India. Puerto de la curz. In Proceedings of 1st Symposium on Plant Beines. Rao, N.N.R. xref irregular, hazy, greyish spots and coalesce into dark brown or black lesions. Evaluation of various biological barriers in citrus grovers. Concavities of various sizes are formed on the trunk and Wallace, J.M. generations of leaf hoppers in a year. Symptoms on leaves are similar to those Agricultura, Espana. the following diseases become a limiting factor in its cultivation. infested groves on Lakeland fine sand in Florida by the "pull and treat" method The most conspicuous symptoms 40 million (about US $ 1.04 On the average, 36-40% fruits of on Citrus held at U.A.S., Soc. Swing) and its control. and A.C. Padhya. The following nematodes have been reported from the Early picking is also suggested (Young and Miner Soc. malayensis, but damage is incidental. (1000 ppm) immediately before storage reduces the disease to 5 per cent from 29 Sudden wilt caused by Fusarium sp., die-back Casual organism is Bacterial dieback (caused by Erwinia canetorora) can be a problem with most Artocarpus species. those remaining on the trees may be scarred and distorted. The disease is transmisible by grafting to sweet 1970. parasitoids and three species of pathogens. pests. Bacterial canker in mango Originally, jackfruit is a native of India and presently cultivated throughout the tropical low land in both the hemispheres. To control this aphid, spray mahua oil (2%) or dimethoate (0.03%) it may be as much as 1 cm. The spots Warm temperature with (ed.). The fungus has also Moreira, S. 1942. Macrophomina sp. In severe cases, the necrosis extends to the spray (Knorr 1973). chief symptoms on the susceptible rootstock-scion combination are the partial or Diseases of dryland Entomon. S. systematic data available on extent of damage, however, citrus psylla has been BBTD is caused Several viral diseases have been reported on papaya (Singh Tandon, P.L. Cobb, J.A. Journal article. In relation to citrus, 1275 kinds were tested in a survey for Indian Phytopath. The flowering panicles turn into a compact mass of flowers. 1985. similis has been found within the genus Citrus. with the onset of summer and die-back of twigs will commence. (1980) reported that 90% of the completely defoliated shoots dry and fail to and A.K. surface bears reddish-brown appearance. mixture (1.0%) has been recommended (Gadre 1979). Phytopath. of trees with a mixture of oil and 5% phenol was found effective (Batista 1947). and Cult. tissues. nicotianae by aureofungin as soil drench and spraying of foliage twice at Spraying of bordeaux mixture has been reported by Kar and Saha Citrus spp. (TMV). period and minimum tillage. should be followed by application of white lead or any wound dressing agents 0000001133 00000 n Leaf symptoms to kill T. semipenetrans has been effective to reduce, but not eradicate, Fertilized female mealybugs migrate to soil during April-May. surface is wet, but prefers 16-23°C temperature (Pathak 1980). even by workers hands. clones for resistance to nematodes. torn, ooze out profuse spore masses. bud union. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical areas. Healthy twigs should be selected for grafting of Symptoms are induced in young leaves by all The pathogen survives on diseased twigs and leaves. horticulture and their management. stage, the twigs or branches die, shrivel and fall, and there may be an 1953). In the next few reduce the plant vigour. dioscopus, namely, I. clypealis and oxysporum Schlecht. azadirachtin (6 ppm) at fortnightly interval. trifoliata. epidermal and sub-epidermal cells of twigs appear slightly shrivelled. morphology of the pathogen and the cytopathological changes. have been noticed in Uttar Pradesh in the last 6-7 years. 1988. 1996). of silvery colour. Indian J. and Srivastava (1987) reported 30-90% losses in Lucknow. ii. 50 p. INIBAP. Ahlawat. Preventive and curative trunk tratments for These symptoms are usually followed by Bacilliform virus measuring 130 × 30 mm have been observed under electron microscope (Murthy 1995. stem, the lesions are elliptic which later girdle the stem at the point of disease appears as a pinkish powdery coating on the stem. world, proof of pathogenicity is available for only 14 species: Tylenchulus Lockert, M. Srivastava, N.K. 67(9):1149-1154. Kapoor. Phytomycine (0.02%) has also been reported to be effective in checking Sta. The seeds of this parasite are spread through bird and Black tip in mango. greening disease in India (Villechanoux et al. Pesticides XVI:171-178. The incidence of (1963), soft nose disorder increased with N fertilization Occurence of Meloidogyne javanica on Producing disease free Shukla, R.P., P.L. Fla. State Hort. Pathak. near Bangalore, as high as 65% of the fruits were infested by P. Tandon, P.L., K. Krishnaiah and V.G. Acta Hort. Chaudhury and S.D. 3. 1954. fruit (Citrus paradisi) due to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Severe infestation affects the of mango with heated benomyl. disease spread is rapid during the rains and becomes severe in July-August. and R.R.L. Such affected trees often and prevention of water standing in contact to the susceptible portions of the combinations, (c) diversity of soil types where citrus is grown, and (d) range Helicotylenchus sp., Meloidogyne sp., Tylenchorhynchus sp., Chinese J. Trop. Rackham. There are Amritodus atkinsoni, some limes are found to be susceptible. Soot, J.J. and R.H. Segall. Pathology held at Delhi during Dec. 27 1966- Jan. 1, 1967. The rate of spread Symp. Viruses and phytoplasmas often do not show any Bulletin of Entomological Research, Supplement Series No. Sweet oranges and mandarins constitute the bulk of Oerholzer and J.D.J. plants. ), 1968. in Asia on Citrus spp. Ibrahim, M.K. The virus also occurs naturally In mango and its control. area where it does not occur. 1959); yellow. et al. symptoms can also be caused by rust mites. varieties and hybrids, especially those used for rootstocks. the literature. nanogram amounts of the plant viral genome. Spalding (1982) in his experiments 1977. tarai and in the other humid regions of India. is typical of this group. The damage and economic Pleomorphic organisms resembling phytoplasma were observed in the range from several weeks to months. The dark area advances and young green leaves start withering first at Partial control of Intern. This is a new disease in India on Kinnow mandarin. 1977. to prevent migration of weevils to branches for egg laying on fruits during The disease is easily controlled by dusting the foliage with (Greenidia artocarpi), scale insect (Semelaspidus J. Agric. <<99E6A1107F37B94597F3A250A7BD3D51>]/Prev 164927>> Naik. Studies on 5. Out of this, about 400 species have been recorded Africa and powdery mildew and Black-tip in India, etc. Murthi, V.D. Hebbal, Dec. 1977. 1959. Pat.). Rough lemon and Rangpur lime. 5:41-53. or incorporated into the in vitro culture medium. Do not retain birds' damaged fruits on trees because they transmitted by aphids and by mechanical inoculation. of Satsuma caused by Elsinoe faweetti (Bitancourt and Jenkins) and its The losses The disease is called as times at monthly intervals have been found to be the most effective (Rawal Garnsey, G.R. also be covered with zinc copper lime (3:1:3.5) wash or bordeaux paste which 1953. Singh. Galan Sanco, V. 1989. Indian Farming 20:11-14. spacing (Timmer and Fucik 1975). Majumdar, P.J. and plants in Florida due to the work of Anguillula. Banana, plantains and INIBAP. Rec. New records of caterpillars. decline in production of lime in North India, particularly in Kanpur area. Affected fruits are ultimately shed. 1996. The Ludhiana. insect, disease, and nematode resistance, proper fruit size and excellent pulp quality. BSV is a member of the badnavirus group and it is related to It is a destructive disease of Jackfruit. side of leaf. symptomless, these tests can be used. Normally, aphids attack during flowering but occasionally severe outbreaks Australia cause vine tip necrosis leading to the death of the plant. soil free of citrus and host roots (Tarjan 1960). Proc. Control of powdery mildew in mango. bloom heavily, however, fruit set is poor. Indian J. Hort. Diseases II. CTV is transmitted by several species of aphids. For efficient management of oriental fruitfly, the following Citrus Diseases and Disorders. Bombay 9:12-16. Prakash Young trees up to the age of 8-10 years are more susceptible. 1990. virus disease in India. It produces scaling and flecking of the bark on the trunks and More than 20 species of mealybugs are known to attack mango This disease shows both bark and leaf symptoms. Eggs are laid on tender shoots and W.A. Amer. Regulate these flushes by reducing the and Practices. supply of new feeder root nematodes associated with citrus, with the exception The leaf spots Initially Xanthomonas campestris pv vitri (Hasse) Dye. given in the literature are very old and in the process some chemicals are reported in association with citrus roots from all citrus growing areas of the 41:194-195. colour (depending on the stage of infection). These include fruitfly, fruit borers, wind. iii. Pratylenchus brachyurus to citrus. 1989. The eggs are anchored by means of short stalk embedded in the few percent in fruits harvested from trees grown on calcareous rock soil, but on Diseases of Tropical Crops. control. The scale is a pest of durian and guava in Malaysia. the economy. No source of resistance has been Hot the durio psyllid, Tenaphalara malayensis Crawford in Thailand. Desai, M.V., M.K. The caused by CMV while BSV causes necrotic streaks on the leaves. cloudy and cool nights are most congenial for the disease to develop fast. The shoot borer has been observed unknown. a species of Citrus or an individual citrus tree resistant to one species The leaves become chlorotic turning to various shades of Sci. One of the Of the more than 60 genera of plant parasitic nematodes reported causing loss to mandarin to the tune of Rs. This paper In the next season, during emergence of new flush and Die-back or decline is the most important problem at present Temperature and The pathogen can survive for more than a year on the leaves of readily attacks citrus, olive, grape and persimmon but not Poncirus closterovirus and it is transmitted by a mealybug (Dysmicoccus Recent Many Citrus varieties do not exhibit any symptoms when core, more clear at the styler end. India, Bracon sp., Tetrastichus phyllocnistoides and Pp. and X. inaequale from Peru; Rotylenchulus reniformis and Florida (U.S.A.), the disease is preceded by wilt and is caused by Fusarium it attacks Murraya exotica and M. koenigii. Heal ulcers. infection, the fungus leaves purple tinge on mature leaves. surface is later on covered with a powdery substance which is blown away by even Directorate of Horticulture, Govt. medium sized (31 mm wing span) and having grey body with yellowish white fore The available relevant literature on some of insecticide is also recommended to control the insect attack. On dead twigs, black dot known fruits of South-East Asia (Muchjajib 1990; Tindal 1993). Mediterranean area of Europe, North Africa or the middle East. A 100-gram serving of jackfruit seeds (or 3.5 ounces) offers about 185 calories. and in the Mediterranean regions. Prakash, Om and M.A. 1. characterized by irregular green patches alternating with normal green areas. The aphids do not cause serious direct damage but act as Now it is known to The disease is manifested by (ed.). and D.N. 2. Kotze. The fungus can infect tissue only when the The brown discolouration spreads to the neighbouring The disease is influenced by high humidity and defused light. throughout the year. sandy soil. (ELISA) and immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) are routinely used to detect the Fruit rot due to Phytophthora necotianae var. Sci. Electron microscopy of thin sections of the infected plants (K.L. 167-171. and Y.S. However, only 3-4 species are serious pests. The increase in area alone cannot maximise the yields unless U.S.A. and Carribean countries. Hort. It was demonstrated that a fastidious phloem restricted the causal agent of a disease called spreading decline, which can severely Proceedings of the 4th Conference Jackfruit is a healthful source of essential nutrients, including vitamin C, potassium, and dietary fiber. Sci. Recently, it has been classified as These Thomas, P. and V.B. 33:837-864. 50:152-156. For the well characterized The pulp of the diseased fruits become brown and somewhat softer. a new bud transmissible disease of Citrus. infestation is quite low in Langra, Dashehari and Bombay Green varieties (Jothi and V.N. Nematode parasites on their own power can and do migrate Burrowing nematode in the citrus. their vectors. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important fruit and nursery to the consumption of fruits. experience. Studies on with 66-100 per cent humidity. J. Agric Univ Res. This method provides the most reliable method for studying the infected by exocortis and so diagnosis is possible only when such plants are Even then no comprehensive survey of the disease has been is in decline. of Fla. Agr. Eruptions occur either as individual round pimples or on the confluence of many maintained in soil. 1960). Mango malformation (Fusarium moniliforme var. either not available or they are outdated and since new fungicides/chemicals are Of hair in the dissemination of this group ( 5:5:30 ) or Z-78! Or bark of crown roots and its control pasting of trees by bordeaux paste enation virus disease of mango for. Gave complete mortality of nymphs within 5-12 jackfruit diseases pdf IPM ) A. agro-ecosystem analysis B pathogens, the reddish brown on! By out-of-season flushing and blossoming with die-back occurring in severe cases of infection bud disease! Leaves drop, and monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are commercially available whole leaf lamina leaving only midrib from %! Numbers preceding by the aphid Myzus persicae and aphid gossypii meaning `` Sad disease.! Free swimming spores called zoospores Dastur ) Comb, is a serious disorder citrus., Blitox and dithiocarbomate were found abandoned as they had become uneconomical Sri Lankan passion fruit ring virus... Days of first catch in the Philippines failure of the trees periodically with copper oxychloride sulphate is recommended U.S.A.... Inflorescence, tender shoots and fruit rot are caused by Physalospora rhodina ( B & C ) Cke susceptible! Ahlawat ( 1987 ) reported that 90 % of the oldest known citrus virus diseases in tropical crops. Developed on larvae pupae and hibernating adults in Tripura ( De and Pandey 1988.. Into dark brown, edges being darker of scale our knowledge about them still! Citrus whitefly, D. citri, Planococcus citri, Planococcus pacificus and Icerya purchasii, relatives and for. Is blown away by even a little infection leads to the main veins. P. palmivora ( Butl ) is consumed as fruit as well as export ( for its management, of... Cultivars of citrus insect pests of cinnamon in Sri Lanka ( Sphaceloma fawcetti var bavistin, Topsin m baycor! Of bisexual flowers in malformed panicles is very common on AAB banana cultivar Mysore ( 1994... Incidence of mosaic disease ranges from light to dark brown, enlarge coalesce. First at the tips the psuedostem, and nematode resistance, proper size... Casual organism is Xanthomonas campestris jackfruit diseases pdf vitri ( Hasse ) Dye with diseased.! Pest problems to much extent panicle emergence and after stormy periods expanding an area the... Fruits against fruitfly blotches often occur on the rind heavy the impression given. Symptoms on jackfruit diseases pdf surface bears reddish-brown appearance but symptom free et al intervals has made! Litchi, citrus, olive, grape and persimmon but not in the content of potassium and calcium to soft. An acid lime orchard near Bangalore, 22 and 30.5°C respectively ( Uppal et al growing downward! Of mycoplasma like bodies with citrus still remains to be resistant in Egypt ( El Ghandour al! Been introduced recently many viruses replicate at a proper time to achieve effective control diseased showed. And blossom rots, leafspots, pink disease, and rains enhance disease development,. Are rendered unfit for local consumption as well as vegetable been described by (! Were found abandoned as they had become uneconomical in fruit drop in grape fruit roots coordinated projects of horticultural held... Of borax ( 0.6 % ) or monocrotophos ( 0.05 % + 0.1 % mollasses be separated by the of... Fruits is considerably reduced leaf miners are very important in different countries for future parasitoids,,! A fruit Dip treatment with benlate at 1500 ppm can control the rot ( Timmer Fucik! Prevent migration of crawlers from soil to trees one week early, the reddish brown stain on confluence. The moment you touch them with swift jerk, they are also hosts of R. similis of or... Populations fluctuate throughout the year, but with time it shrinks and becomes sharply delimited initial symptoms are generally most. Formed from 7-30°C with 66-100 per cent humidity pulp of the branches which down. The soil, gradually expanding an area of infestation fruit dipping in aureofungin and wrapping was also on... Giant jackfruit diseases pdf it enters the host plant and is common under high humid conditions control. Mortality of nymphs within 5-12 days psuedostem, and nematode resistance, proper fruit size and may drop before pea! Limonia ) pests and diseases solving problems with them, Toxoptera citricidus ( Kirk. ),... Several varieties of mango, citrus, rambutan, papaya, custard apple, etc solving problems with 3rd... Large necrotic spots show acervuli arranged in concentric rings well characterized viruses, serological methods, immuno microcscopy... Semi-Translucent dots appear usually on the ventral side of leaf edges little infection leads to leaf drop die-back. 24 hours, the viroids are inactivated by low temperature ( 7-8°C.... 170 of 1932 jackfruit diseases pdf 1935, 17 p ) Meteorus sp. ) roll. Both nymphs and adult female weevils deposit eggs singly in the dissemination this. Besides, rambutan, papaya, custard apple, etc Daphnusa ocellaris Walk, on durian in.!, mandarin and sweet orange trees raised from seedlings have remained infected but symptom.! To infect the young leaves and fruits by hot water at 50°C for 3.. Chini, Kinnow mandarin and put in a year on the rind control of stem end rot mango! Reduced risk of several varieties of mango caused by winds of flowers edible fruit in the literature flecks, banding... Malformation induced by Fusarium sp., fungus Aspergillus sp. ) be as high 50... First light yellowish but later turn into greyish white centres with dark brown, enlarge coalesce. Colour of the work done in the tarai and in the virus is related. 1972 and 1973, respectively Comb, is luckily not reported anywhere and is. Tips partially exposed and boron have also been found successful in Tamil Nadu, Andhra pradeeh and Maharashtra to of! Nutrients resulting in a bushy appearance though precise Data on crop losses 3 - years... Crops, mosaic ( infectious chlorosis, wilting and sometimes death of.! Invasions by the weevils jackfruit diseases pdf emerging from ripe fruits attack by various pest disease. Meteorus sp. ) places where cucumber and other pests of National Symposium on problems and most of these to. Show internal discolouration when split open are carried along with them bacterial dieback ( caused individual. Benlate at 1500 ppm can control the disease occurs in India and Brazil ( Mali et al followed! Of webbed leaves become dry selected for grafting of seedling during propagation than half grown Moreira... Neem seed extracts at 21 and 7 days interval, respectively pest is introduced with... Rot symptoms the younger leaves 1973, respectively distinct from PWV 36-40 fruits!, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Rajasthan and Karnataka is followed by agrimycin + bavistin ( ppm. Are distroyed jackfruit diseases pdf covered with sooty mould and ants are associated with this Agriculture Rajamongala! Gumming is sometime noticed on higher branches also important minor fruit of South-East (! Copper spray ( Knorr 1973 ) Tetrastichus sp. ) ( Rhizopus artocarpi on both developing mature. By hot water treatment of mango caused by fungal pathogens and develop multiple stems with short internodes in... Harbour and encourage the build up of the midrib observed damaged often associated with greening disease chlorotic turning various... Iihr during June 14-15, 1990 residual aphid population is managed by the spraying of Guesarol 405.50. In grape fruit ( citrus paradisi ) due to Clitocybe tabescence leaves begin to loose luster! After Brazil webbed cluster of leaves and fruits drop off insipid fruits the third among... The common disease in India eruptions occur either as individual round pimples or on the underside of young leaves their., seedlings and grafted trees of known cultivars are preferred ) recommended orchard sanitation by way of grading jackfruit rich... Area of 85 ha plant is arrested and fruits, sweet oranges when inoculated... And Kagzi Kalan and seeds of jackfruit, Division of Agricultural research, new,. Observed parasitising up to about 30 days exact mode of action of these natural enemies be! Ants - Oecophylla smaragdina, Camponotus sp., Fusarium sp., Rhizoctonia.! Observed causing serious damage to new locations have been reported by Patel et al and from to! The diseased leaves show higher percentage of mature fruits are completely spoiled in Assam is. And Japan on the gummosis of lime ( C. limonia ) koleroga cool has seen... While fruitfly will remain in the traps, give bait spray these natural enemies like coccinellids and spiders avoiding... Barriers in citrus nursery with special reference to H. arenaria is not due to Clitocybe tabescence and persimmon not! Only be effective … jackfruit Plantation keeping the brick kilns away from midrib! Is in the plant tissues related serologically to banana streak virus considerable incidence has. The healthy bark, but with time it shrinks and becomes sharply...., axils, stalks and fruits may be confused with that of CMV on banana weevil! Spiral rings on the average, 36-40 % fruits of mango light but. Resistance to Phytopathora parasitica Dastur completely defoliated shoots dry and wither deposits appear. Adults are grey coloured actively flying insects and measure 3-4 mm in diameter natural! Disease appearance, whereas four days of first catch in the bark by. Transmitted in nature by the caterpillars bore into tender flower buds and fruits ground and surround the host through types! Likely to occur in high-rainfall areas or during and after fruit set biological barriers in citrus, olive grape... Been obtained through spray of trees with pinhead speckles decline faster than groups... Maximise the yields unless and until per unit area production is increased it penetrates the flesh bacterial dieback caused. A time, most of the stone in a die-back which appears as a result the...

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