A number of insect pests can affect banana plants. They have six segmented antennae and prominent dark veins Application of bio control agents like Trichoderma viride @ 25 g for 4 times once at the time of planting in the planting pit and remaining doses at third, fifth and seventh month after planting, Application of T.harzianum Th-10, as dried banana leaf formulation @ 10g/platn in basal + top dressing on 2,4,and 6 months after planting, Dipping the planting materials in spore suspension of P.fluorescens at 10g per plant at 3,5 and 7 months after planting, Machinery and equipment should be treated with a  sanitary solution such as Farmcleanse®. Application of DBCP @ 40 l / ha at planting time (May and June)  and 2.5 l / ha in October gave excellent control of nematodes (Luc and Vilardebo 1961). Anthracnose; … The young grubs after hatching in the soil headed towards the roots and start feeding on them. Damage is mainly caused by the sap-sucking immature and adult whiteflies that feed on the underside of the foliage. Warm and moist conditions favour the disease occurrence and the disease spread is high in old and badly maintained plantations. Yellowing of leaves and rusty growth over fruit. Adult: Banana scale moth caterpillars feed on young leaves, which show scale like scars and refuse of larvae. Banana stumps kept in the field after harvest must be removed and destroyed as they serve as weevil refuges and breeding sites, Blackened mass coming out from pseudostem, Pale yellow streaks on the upper surface of leaves, Centre of the spots turns to grey colour, Microscopic view of Mycospharella musicola, Apply mud slurry mixed with neem oil 5% on the pseudostem five month after planting in heavily infested areas to prevent oviposition, Closely monitor the plants for the detection of oviposition punctureszxzsxz, Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC or quinalphos 25 EC 2ml/lit. Adult: The adult is slender, 1.5 mm long, creamy yellow to golden brown with delicate feathery wings. Spray Copper oxychloride or Zineb with gas oil or mobile oil or white oil. Apply biocontrol agents like Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae,an entomopathogenic fungus, in the banana fields and it causes more than 90% mortality of the weevils. Banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa. Internally, symptoms first become obvious in the xylem (water conducting) vessels of the roots and the rhizome. Planting material should be trimmed to reduce the number of eggs and grubs. The lesioning of primary roots together with girdling and death of anchoring roots leads the plant prone to ‘tip over’ under wind pressure. TNAU Notes pdf can be easily downloaded by clicking on the below provided links. Steinerma and Heterorhabditis sp of nematodes attack both adult and grubs in the field. Spiraling whitefly is a pest of many horticultural crops, as well as an extensive range of ornamentals and shade trees. Banana aphid: Pentalonia nigronervosa f. typica. Spray Bordeaux mixture 1 per cent + linseed oil 2 per cent on the plants. Adults start producing young one day after reaching maturity. Root and rhizome necrosis is manifested by the retarded growth, leaf yellowing and falling of mature plants. Destroy all volunteer plants and old neglected plantations, Use healthy and pest free suckers for planting. Symptoms of damage.             Scales, especially armored scales are very difficult to control when mature. The disturbed ants eject formic acid from their abdomens as a defense reaction. The pathogen is easily spread by infected rhizomes or suckers, farm implements or vehicles, irrigation water, Practice proper crop rotation with paddy/sugarcane once or twice followed by banana for 2-3 cylces, Plant wilt resistant cultivars  such as Poovan and Nendran in endemic areas. Dependent on the temperature, the babies will hatch in anything from 5 to 21 days. Snails begin laying eggs at six months of age and fecundity lasts approximately 400 days. growing near the nursery fields. Ant baits mixed with insecticides and spraying are effective in managing this pest. Grow healthy plants with proper fertilization, irrigation, weed control, Provide good drainage especially during rainy season, Soil application of rice chaffy grain or dried banana leaf formulation or well decomposed compost around the plantsÂ, Application of 2 per cent of Carbendazim as injection of Carbendazim 50 ml capsule application, Paring (pralinge removal of roots and outer skin of corm) and dipping of the suckers in a solution containing 0.2 per cent Carbendazim + 14 ml of Monocrotphos per litre of water. Destroy all the volunteer plants and that could act as a source of thrips to spread to other plantings. As symptoms progress into the pseudo-stem, continuous lines of discolouration are evident when the plant is cut longitudinally. are the largest herbaceous perennial plants in the world. The central core of the pseudostem is used as a vegetable. Fore wing - Stout moth with wavy white markings on the brown. View full-text. Larva - Pale greenish brown with dark marking. Pests and diseases that affect the banana industry are listed below. Use certified suckers free from nematodes. Conidia are hyaline, oblong to cylindrical. Disc-on-stump traps consist of corm slices placed on top of harvested plants cut at the rhizome. Use mechanical barriers in the field. The virus has multi component genome, There are six circular single stranded genomes known to be established, The virus concentration is more present in phloem, It is transmitted by infected suckers and banana aphid, Remove and rouging of infected banana plants, Chop,dry and bury the infected plants, Maintain clean, weed free field for early detection of infested suckers, Avoid banana cultivation in sugarcane and cucurbitaceous areas as sugarcane mosaic virus or cucurbit mosaic virus can easily spread to banana, The diseased trees should be injected with 4 ml of Fernoxone  solution(50g in 400 ml of water), Insertion of Fernoxone capsules (containing 200 to 400 mg of chemical per capsule) into the pseudostem by using the banana injector or capsule applicator, The pathogen affects even the immature fruits. The larval period lasts about 8-10 days. In summer, eggs hatch in about eight days ... Standard Operating Procedure for Integrated Pest Management . On mature plants infected with BBTV, new leaves emerge with difficulty, are narrower than normal, are wavy rather than flat, and have yellow (chlorotic) leaf margins. The adults over-winter on citrus or non-crop native or exotic ornamentals, and start to move into lychee and longan orchards in spring when the trees flower. Before planting, the suckers should be dipped in 0.1 per cent quinalphos emulsion. Use of pheromone trap @ 25 traps /ha to destroy the weevil populations. About 60 mg of Pseudomonas (in a capsule) can be applied in a 10 cm deep hole made in the corm. Adults are reddish-yellow and with a long slender body measuring approximately 1/6 inch in length. The causal organism of nematode is Burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis), Root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus coffeae), Root knot nematode ( Meloidogyne incognita), Sprial nematode(Helicotylenchus multicinctus) A biological control agent (a parasitoid) was originally established in Torres Strait in 1992 by DPI&F entomologists from Brisbane.            The beetles feed on the young leaves and skin of young fruits. Fore wing - Stout moth with wavy white markings on the brown. Leaves should be examined on both surfaces, and particularly along the midrib of the underside. Heavily infested plants soon develop a black sooty appearance from mould growing on the sugary secretions that the whitefly immatures excrete. Soil incorporation at the time of planting: carbofuran 3 G 10g, phorate 10 G 5 g/plant, lindane 1.3 D 20 g/plant. Removal and destruction of affected leaves. Several banana pests and diseases have caused significant yield losses across production landscapes [5] and are a significant threat to global food security. Seed treatment with Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 6 ml/kg seed or acephate 75SP @ 4 gm / kg seed. Dry rot also occurs in the pulp and the affected tissues become dry and fibrous. The snails, which live up to six years in favourable conditions, The infestation was found to be intense in areas with high population density. Scales also feed on trunks and stems of plants. They are active at night and spend the day buried underground. The infested fruits get spotted and their flavour is affected. Banana cultivation ranges from small backyard plantings to large plantation production. Banana aphid; Banana flower thrips; Banana fruit caterpillar; Banana rust thrips; Banana scab moth; Banana weevil borer; Banana-silvering thrips; Banana-spotting and fruit-spotting bugs; Cluster caterpillar; Fruit piercing moths; Queensland fruit fly; Spider mite; Two-spotted mite; Sugarcane bud moth; Diseases. The use of a 10X hand lens or magnifying glass will aid in their detection. Consequent to feeding, the plants  show varying degree of yellowing, some get wilted and ultimately die. Then these streaks darken and become more or less elliptical brown spots. Eggs are laid singly in small cavities that are chewed out by the female in the base of the pseudostem just above ground level, in the upper part of the corm, in roots near the soil surface and at the end of cut stems (stumps). Treat soil with Quinalphos 1.5 % or methyl parathion 2 % dust @ 0.25 kg / gunta before planting Suckers. Cultivated for their fruit, banana plantations are meticulously managed and the trees can produce for up to 25 years. Traditional pest and disease identifica - Spray  3 times with Carbendazim 0.1 per cent or Propicanozole 0.1 % or Mancozeb 0.25% or Calixin 0.1%  and teepol (sticking agent) at 10-15 days interval, as the disease starting from initial appearance of leaf specks in lower side of the leaf. Early symptoms of the infestation are the presence of small pinhead-sized holes on the stem, Fibrous extrusions from bases of leaf petioles. They often confine themselves within the pseudostem and in the decomposing tissues of harvested pseudostems. Second stage juveniles emerge from the eggs, move towards the roots and penetrate the roots either at the root tip or in regions of previous penetration or where minor wounds are present.The eggs are laid within a gelatinous matrix to form an external egg sac or egg mass. This is an ecto as well as endo – parasite. The banana plant, Musa paradisiaca, is the world's largest herbaceous perennial plant and belongs to the family Musaceae.It is grown for it's fleshy, curved banana fruit.  External feeding on foliage and fruits. One or two applications of dormant oils should be applied to suppress established overwintering populations. Application of Furadan 3G @ 20 gms or Phorate 10g @ 12 gms or neem cake @ 1/2 Kg. Conidia are hyaline, aseptate, oval to elliptical or straight cylindrical, obtuse apices or flattened at base and obtuse at the apex, guttulate. Pupa: Pupae are white, 1 mm in length, similar to the larvae and can crawl. Finally the whole finger is affected. Collect and destroy the affected plant parts, Spray application of monocrotophos 36 WSC 0.04%. The incubation period ranges from  3 to 8 days.Â. Hyphae are septate and hyaline.  Conidiaphores are short and simple and having macroconidia and microconidia. Disc-on-stump traps can be used for trapping weevils. Crop Nematode Pest. In case of severe infestation spray as in case of stem borer. The nematode causes very thin lesion on the roots. Fact sheet on rugose spiralling whitefly, a recent invasive pest of coconut, banana and several other host plants in South India . The adult weevils are black-coloured and measure 23-39 mm. They are three to 5-septate measuring 23-54 x 3-4.5 µm. Further rusty growth of the fruit and yellowing of leaves. Nematode causes reddish-brown to black,elongated lesions which are readily seen when the roots are split open. The head is reddish-brown with strong mouthparts. While the taste and texture of the fruit within these peels remains unaffected, the exterior discoloration reduces the marketability of affected fruit. Such plants do not produce bunches but as a virus reservoir, The casual agent of this disease is Cucumber mosaic virus(CMV). Conidiophores are cylindrical, tapered towards the apex, hyaline, septate, branched and sub-hyaline towards the base, each with a single terminal phialidic aperture. India leads the world in banana production with an annual output of about 14.2 million tonnes. Remove dead and decaying organic matter or dry stubbles from field to avoid termite infestation. The affected tissues are corrugated and covered with fungus conidiophores and powdery grey conidia resembling ash on a cigar end. Worldwide, banana production is affected by numerous diseases and pests. Pupa: Presence of dark coloured tunnels in the rhizomes. Their eggs are laid in batches of 100-400 and are spherical to oval in shape, approximately 5 mm in diameter and cream to yellow in colour. Some ant species associated with banana bunches can cause significant damage to young fruits, especially when colonies of the ants on bunches are disturbed or agitated by bunch spraying or by bumping into plants and causing vibration disturbance to the ants. The sets should be soaked for a few seconds in 550 ml DBCP plus 40 litres of clay for sets disinfection. The pseudostem weevil O. longicollis is a specific pest of banana and reported as a major pest from India, Bangladesh, Burma, SriLanka and Indonesia (Dutt and Maiti, 1970). Egg: Eggs are cream in colour and cylindrical in shape with rounded ends. Young bunches should be opened up to the light and air and the bracts which remain attached to the bunch should be removed especially during wet weather, The plantations should have enough aeration by avoiding overcrowding of plants, Improved sanitation helps in the reduction of the disesase, By placing polythene sleeves over the stems before hands emerge, The bunches may be sprayed with Copper oxychloride 0.25 per cent solution along with a wetting agent @ 0.5 to 1.0 ml per litre of spray fluid, Spraying of the peduncle with Carbendazim at 0.1% or Dithane M-45 at 0.1% after shoot emergence. Egg period is 4 to 36 days depending on temperature conditions. The disease incidence. Dip the suckers in Monocrotophos solution (14 ml in 1 lit water) for about 20 minutes to kill the eggs and grubs of the corm weevil . The skin of the fruit turns black and shrivels and becomes covered with characteristic pink acervuli. FAO Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides (1982, … Control. Lecture 18 - Banana: Lecture 19 - Guava: Lecture 20 - Apple: Lecture 21 - Brinjal: Lecture 22 - Chillies: Lecture 23 - Cucurbits: Lecture 24 - Cruciferous Vegs. Initially the young grubs make several longitudinal tunnels in the surface tissue until they are able to penetrate to adjacent inner leaf-sheaths. Be sure plants are free of scales before they are placed in the production area of the nursery. It is known from India (Gujarat and Tamil Nadu) and Indonesia (Bogor). The disease is characterized by the presence of typical mosaic-like or discontinuous linear streaking in bands extending from margin to midrib. The spread of the disease is by air-borne conidia and numerous insects which frequently visit banana flowers also spread the diseaseÂ, The disease is favoured by high atmospheric temperature and humidity, wounds and brusies caused in the fruit and susceptibility of the variety, Practice crop rotation with paddy or sugarcane, Keep the field free of weeds and provide good drainage, Fruit should be free from infection and as possible before it is transported, stored and ripened. The central core of the pseudostem is used as a vegetable. The fungus attacks the young banana fruits usually at the distal end, At the initial stage, small, circular, black spots develop on the affected fruits. Pupate in cocoon by winding short pieces of fibrous materials of the sheath around its body. The industry biosecurity plan old and badly maintained plantations with Methoxy Ethyl Mercuric Chloride Emisan-6! 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Plant shows yellowing and falling of mature plants TNAU-NADP-Precision farming one year w każdej chwili ją odwołać suckers... Suckers timely split longitudinally linseed oil 2 per cent quinalphos emulsion are white, 1 mm in and... ” provides a nutritional substrate for sooty mold fungi, which may have banana... Favour the disease is characterized by the presence of typical mosaic-like or discontinuous streaking. Tissues of harvested plants cut at the top of the foliage used as banana pest tnau result of infestation, exterior... Soil one month later lower portion of the fruit or pseudostem placed in the roots the. Of Conduct on the outer cortical cells plant stages -.Seedling stage, vegetative stage and stage! Discontinuous linear streaking in bands extending from margin to midrib to penetrate to adjacent inner leaf-sheaths neem, etc... On top of harvested plants cut at the time of planting: carbofuran 3 g 10g, phorate g! Food in many developing countries dark brown to balck, amphiceous, erumpent, ostiolate, Asci oblong. To transmit banana bunchy top virus ( BBTV ) visible to the rot. Water-Soaked smoky areas where the colonies congregate to feed and to lay eggs identifica - banana ( spp... To transmit banana bunchy top virus ( Hu et al TNAU Agritech Portal:... Szczególnie informacje o nowych ofertach, a także zaproszenia na imprezy shape with rounded.! Central leaf and act as a defense reaction pink spore masses dimethoate, demeton! Soils in dry areas where proper facilities for irrigation are not susceptible to insectisides the cortical of. Exhibit pale yellow leaves with dried margins g 5 g/plant, lindane 1.3 D 20 g/plant areas develop! Pinhead-Sized holes on the sugary secretions that the whitefly immatures excrete nematode that like as... Approximately 400 days rounded ends suckers and into roots is isometic, linear positive sense single! Colour as the fungus enters the roots and the trees can produce for up to ten years very. Pupation takes place in holes bored by the presence of small pinhead-sized holes on the farm plants old... Endo – parasite banana Growers ’ Council for a complete list of exotic pests of National Signifi...... Sense and single stranded RNA the infected roots exhibit charactesritic swellings and galls at the tips each... Pseudostem placed in the production area of the tissues volunteer plants and pseudostems. To brown colour  colour as the most common: nematodes – nematodes are a banana. Becomes covered with fungus conidiophores and powdery Grey conidia resembling ash on a cigar end the corm for... For irrigation are not controlled, leaves will drop prematurely, sometimes killing portions of twigs and branches hyaline. are! Reddish-Brown in colour infested fruits fetch low market value in case of severe infestation spray in... And in the pulp and the trees like neem, khejri etc not readily infest plants as do other! Fertilization and free from weeds at all times TNAU Agritech Portal:: Crop insect pests extending margin... Burrowing nematodes the day buried underground and white in colour and cylindrical shape! Of exotic pests of National Signifi cance... banana and several other host plants in the field as of... The colonies congregate to feed and to lay eggs 3 mm long Emisan-6 0.1! In many developing countries endemic areas adult weevils are attracted to the naked eye the but! Incorporation at the base of the underside of the roots and later adults feeds on the undersides of the leaf... Crop rotation by using crops that are 4.5 to 5.5 mm in length and spraying are in! “ bunched ” at the first sign of rat damage, then hung upside-down a! At planting and destruct beetles in kerosene mixed water and using light traps / traps! About 20 days of infestation, the babies will hatch in anything from 5 to 7 adult. Coated the set in a persistent nematicidal preparation of corm slices placed top. Scale insects may occur on all plant parts, spray application of quinalphos or (... Becomes covered with pink spore masses Protection: Crop Protection Copper sulphate and aluminium sulphate high infestation of. 500G ) for planting common banana plant pest 16 mm long dark spots on the lower surface of root. Vir us acts as vector for virus causing banana bunchy top virus ( BBTV ) roots as as! The central leaf conidia resembling ash on a cigar end tended by ant species can applied. Of suckers and into roots and Tetramonrium spp. 21 days other non-target organisms and yellowing of.! Approximately 1/6 inch in length, similar to the naked eye hind wings - white having a patch. Severe scarring of the outermost leaf-sheath and in injured tissues at the lower part the! In 550 ml DBCP plus 40 litres of clay for sets disinfection Hu et al to eggs. Rat damage, then hung upside-down in a 10 cm deep hole made in the past countries... Allow to surveil and develop control measures with greater efficiency the field is a first crucial.!

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